Asthana, V., Stern, B., Tang, Y., Bugga, P., Li, A., Fegurson, F., Asthana, A., Bao, G., and Drezek, R. Development of a novel class of self-assembling dsRNA cancer therapeutics. In review (revisions submitted) Molecular Therapeutics (2019).


Evans ER, Asthana V, Bugga P, Drezek RA. Metallic Nanoparaticles for Cancer Immunotherapy. Materials Today. 21: 673-685 (2018).

V Asthana, Y Tang, A Ferguson, P Bugga, A Asthana, ER Evans, AL Chen,and Drezek, R. An inexpensive, customizable microscopy system for the automated quantification and characterization of multiple adherent cell types PeerJ 6, e4937 (2018).


Figueroa, E., Bugga, P., Asthana, V., Chen, A., Yen, S., Evans, E., and Drezek, R. Exploring the differential transfection efficiencies between easy to transfect SKBR3 and difficult to transfect CT26 cell lines. J. of Nanobiotechnology 15. 1(2017).


Figueroa, Elizabeth, Yan, Jiaxi, Chamberlain-Simon, Nicolette, Lin, Adam, Foster, Aaron, Drezek, Rebekah. Systematically Probing the Bottom-Up Synthesis of AuPAMAM Conjugates for Enhanced Transfection Efficiency. J of Nanobiotechnology 14, 1(2016).

Allen Chen, Meredith Jackson, Adam Lin, Elizabeth Figueroa, Ying Hu, Emily Evans, Vishwaratn Asthana, Joseph Young, Rebekah Drezek. Changes in Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanoparticles in Cellular Environments are Modulated by Nanoparticle PEGylation and Serum Conditions. Nansocale Research Letters. 11 (1) 1-12 (2016).

Aghazadeh, A*, Lin AY*, Sheikh MA*, Chen AL, Atkins LM, Johnson CL, Petrosino JF, Drezek, RA, and Baraniuk, R. Universal microbial diagnostics using random DNA probes. Science Advances. 2(9), e1600025. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600025 (2016). *equal contributors from Baraniuk and Drezek labs


Almeida, JP, Lin AY, Figueroa E, Foster, AE, Drezek R. In vivo gold nanoparticle delivery of peptide vaccine induces anti tumor immune response in prophylactic and therapeutic tumor model in mice. Small 12:1453-1459 (2015).


Allen L. Chen, Ying S. Hu, Meredith A. Jackson, Adam Y. Lin, Joseph K. Young, Robert J. Langsner, and Rebekah A. Drezek. “Quantifying spectral changes experienced by plasmonic nanoparticles in a cellular environment to inform biomedical nanoparticle design," Nanoscale Research Letters, 2014, 9:454. doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-454

Almeida, JP, Lin AY, Langsner RS, Eckels, P, Foster, AE, Drezek, R. In Vivo Immune Cell Distribution of Gold Nanoparticles in Naïve and Tumor Bearing Mice. Small. 10:4. 812-819 (2014).

Elizabeth Figueroa*, Adam Lin*, Stephen Yan, Laureen Luo, Aaron Foster, Rebekah Drezek. “Dendrimer-Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates for Effective Plasmid Delivery” Biomaterials 5:25 1725-1734 (2014).

JPM Almeida, RA Drezek, AE Foster, “Controlling melanoma at local and systemic levels: is a combination of ablative therapy and immunotherapy the way forward?” Immunotherapy 6 (2), 109-111(2014).

Almeida, JP, Figuera, ER, Drezek RA. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Cancer Immunotherapy. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 10:3 503-514 (2014).

Lin, AY, Young JK, Nixon, A and Drezek, R. Synthesis of a quantum nanocrystal–gold nanoshell complex for near-infrared generated fluorescence and photothermal decay of luminescence Nanoscale, 6: 10701-10709 (2014).

AY Lin, JK Young, AV Nixon, RA Drezek “Encapsulated Fe3O4/Ag Complexed Cores in Hollow Gold Nanoshells for Enhanced Theranostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy” Small. I0:16 3246-3251 (2014).

JK Young, AV Nixon, A Satyanarayan, RA Drezek Au Islet Decoration and Coupling on Chalcogenide Substrates for Near‐Infrared and Short‐Wave Infrared Optical Responses Particle DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400007 (2014)


Adam Yuh Lin*, Joao Paulo Mattos Almeida*, Adham Bear, Nathan Liu, Laureen Luo, Aaron Edward Foster, and Rebekah Drezek. “Gold Nanoparticle Delivery of Modified CpG Stimulates Macrophages and Inhibits Tumor Growth for Enhanced Immunotherapy”. PLoS ONE. 8(5): e63550 (2013).

Adam Yuh Lin, Jessica Lunsford, Adham Sean Bear, Joseph Keith Young, Phillip Eckels, Laureen Luo, Aaron Edward Foster, Rebekah Drezek. “High Density Sub-100nm Peptide-Gold Nanoparticle Complexes Improve Vaccine Presentation by Dendritic Cells In Vitro”. Nanoscale Research Letters. 8:72 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-72 (2013).

Bear AS, Kennedy LC, Young JK, Perna SK, Almeida JP, Lin AY, Eckels PC, Drezek RA, Foster AE. Elimination of Metastatic Melanoma Using Gold Nanoshell-Enabled Photothermal Therapy and Adoptive T Cell Transfer. PLoS ONE. 8(7):e69073 (2013).


Young, JK*; Figueroa, ER*; Drezek, RA. "Tunable Nanostructures as Photothermal Theranostic Agents." Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 40(2):438-459 (2012)

Chavan, NL; Young, JK; Drezek, RA; Lewis, R; Bikram, M. "Interactions of Liposome Carriers with Infectious Fungal Hyphae Reveals the Role of B-Glucans." Mol. Pharmaceutics, Articles ASAP

Agrawal, A; Connors, M; Beylin, A; Liang, C-P; Barton, D; Chen, Y; Drezek, RA, Joshua Pfefer, T "Characterizing the point spread function of retinal OCT devices with a model eye-based phantom." Biomedical Optics Express 3(5) pp.1116-1126

*Equal contributors


Langsner, RJ; Middleton, LP; Sun. J; Meric-Bernstam, F; Hunt, KK; Drezek, RA; Yu, TK. "Wide-field imaging of fluorescent deoxyglucose in ex vivo malignant and normal breast tissue" Biomed. Opt. Express. 2(6):1514-1523 (2011)

Kennedy, LC*; Bear, AS*; Young, JK; Lewinski, NA; Kim, J; Foster, AE; Drezek, RA. "T cells enhance gold nanoparticle delivery to tumors in vivo" Nanoscale Research Letters. 6:283 (2011)

Kennedy L, Bickford L, Lewinski N, Coughlin A, Hu Y, Day E, West J, and Drezek R, "A New Era for Cancer Therapy: Gold Nanoparticles Mediated Thermal Therapies" Small.7(2):169-183 (2011)

Young, JK., Drezek, R. "Synthesis of Au2S/Au Core/Shell Nanostructures." Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging and Drug Delivery, OSA Tech. Digest (2011), OTuD2.

Carpin, LB., Bickford LR., Agollah, G., Yu, TK., Schiff, R, Li, Y, Drezek RA. "Immunoconjugated gold nanoshell-mediated photothermal ablation of trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells." Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 125(1):27-34. (2011)

Young, JK; Lewinski, NA; Langsner, RJ; Kennedy, LC; Satyanarayan, A; Nammalvar, V; Lin, AY; Drezek, RA. "Size-controlled synthesis of monodispersed gold nanoparticles via carbon monoxide gas reduction." Nanoscale Research Letters. 6:428 (2011)

Gheorghe, DE.*, Cui, L.*, Karmonik, C., Brazdeikis, A., Penalozao J., Young, JK., Drezek, RA., Bikram, M. "Gold-Silver Allow Nanoshells: A New Candidate for Nanotherapeutics and Diagnostics." Nanoscale Research Letters. 6:554 (2011)

Almeida, JPM*; Chen, AL*; Foster, A; Drezek, R. "In vivo biodistribution of nanoparticles." Nanomedicine. 6(5):815-835 (2011)

Lewinski, NA; Zhu, HG; Ouyang, CR; Conner, GP; Wagner, DS; Colvin, VL; Drezek, RA. "Trophic transfer of amphiphilic polymer coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots to Danio rerio." Nanoscale. 3(8):3080-3083 (2011)

Day, ES; Thompson, PA; Zhang, LN; Lewinski, NA; Ahmed, N; Drezek, RA, Blaney, SM; West, JL. "Nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy improves survival in a murine glioma model." Journal of Neuro-oncology. 104(1):55-63 (2011)

Gheorghe, DE*; Cui, LL*; Karmonic, C; Brazdeikis, A; Penaloza, JM; Young, JK; Drezek, RA; Bikram, M. "Gold-silver alloy nanoshells: a new candidate for nanotherapeutics and diagnostics." Nanoscale Research Letters. 6:554 (2011)

Pfefer, TJ; Wang, QZ; Drezek, RA; "Monte Carlo modeling of time-resolved fluorescence for depth-selective interrogation of layered tissue." Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 104(2):161-167 (2011)

*Equal contributors


Pfefer, T.J., Wang, Q., Drezek, R.A., "Monte Carlo modeling of time-resolved fluorescence for depth-selective interrogation of layered tissue" Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine -- In press

Day, E.S., Thompson, P.A., Zhang, L., Lewinski, N.A., Ahmed, N., Drezek, R.A., Blaney, S.M., West, J.L., "Nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy improves survival in a murine glioma model" Journal of Neuro-Oncology -- In press

Hu, Y.S., Jeon, J., Seok, T.J., Lee, S., Hafner, J.H., Drezek, R.A., Choo, H. "Enhanced Raman scattering from nanoparticle-decorated nanocone substrates: A practical approach to harness in-plane excitation" ACS Nano 4 (10) pp. 5721-5730 (2010)

Winkler, A.M., Rice, P.F.S., Drezek, R.A., Barton, J.K., "Quantitative tool for rapid disease mapping using optical coherence tomography images of azoxymethane-treated mouse colon" Journal of Biomedical Optics 15(4) art. no. 041512 (2010)

Lukianova-Hleb, E., Hu, Y., Latterini, L., Tarpani, L., Lee, S., Drezek, R.A., Hafner, J.H., Lapotko, D.O. "Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles" ACS Nano 4(4) pp. 2109-2123 (2010)

Bickford, L.R., Agollah, G., Drezek, R., Yu, T.-K. "Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy" Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 120(3) pp. 547-555

Bickford, L. Day, E., Hu, Y., Sun, J., Fu, K, Chang, J., Lewinski, N., Yu, K. and Drezek, R. “Chapter 15: Biomedical Applications of Multi-functional Silica-Based Gold Nanoshells” in Handbook of Materials for Nanomedicine, edited by Mansoor M. Amiji, RPh, PhD, and Vladimir P. Torchilin, DSc, PhD (Pan Stanford Publishing). (2010).

Hu, Y., Noelck, S., and Drezek, R. “Symmetry breaking in gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells.” ACS Nano. 4:1521-8 (2010). .

Lewinski, N., Zhu, H., Jo, H., Pham, D., Kamath, R., Ouyang, C., Vulpe, C., Colvin, C., and Drezek, R. Quantification of water solubilized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in Daphnia magna. Environmental Science and Technology. 44:1841-6 (2010).

Drezek, R. and Tour, L. Is Nanotechnology Too Broad to Practice? Nature Nanotechnology. 5:168-169 (2010).

Yu, K., Bickford, L., Langsner, R., and Drezek, R. “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of breast tumor margins”. Commentary in Breast Diseases 21:140 (2010).

Day ES, Bickford LR, Slater JH, Riggall NS, Drezek R, and West J, "Near-Infrared Excited Gold-Gold Sulfide Nanoparticles as Multifunctional Agents for Two-Photon Imaging and Therapy of Cancer"; International Journal of Nanomedicine. 5:445-454 (2010).

Bickford, L., Carpin, L, Sun, J., Yu, T., and Drezek, R. “Non-invasive Optical and Functional Imaging of Breast Tissue” Book chapter in Advanced Therapy of Breast Disease. BC Decker. In press (2010).

Agrawal A, Pfefer TJ, Gilani N, Drezek R, "Three-dimensional characterization of optical coherence tomography point spread functions with a nanoparticle embedded phantom." Optics Letters 35:2269-71 (2010)

Sun J, Shu C, Appiah B, and Drezek R, Needle-compatible single fiber bundle image guide reflectance endoscope, Journal of Biomedical Optics Letters, 15 (4), 040502 (2010).


Culver, J., Drezler, W., Drezek, R., Georgakoudi, I., Hillman, E., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Topics in Biomedical Optics: introduction to the feature issue.” Applied Optics. 48: (April 2009).

Tuchin, V., Drezek, R., Nie, S., and Zharov, V. Guest Editorial: Nanophotonics for Diagnostics, Protection, and Treatment of Cancer and Inflammatory Diseases. Journal of Biomedical Optics 14: 020901 (April 2009).

Sun, J., Fu, K., Zhu, MQ, Bickford, L., Post, E., and Drezek, R. “Near-infrared quantum dots for fluorescence tissue imaging” Current Nanoscience. 5: 160-166 (2009).

Lewinski, N, Zhu, H, and Drezek, R. “Evaluating Strategies for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.” In Nanotoxicity: From In Vitro to In Vivo Models to Health Risks. John Wiley. 459-498 (2009).

Zhang, S., Gao, J., Buchholz, T., Wang, Z., Salehpour, M., Drezek, R., and Yu, TK. “QuantifyingTumor-Selective Radiation Dose Enhancements Using Gold Nanoparticles: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study.” Biomedical Microdevices. 11:(4) 1-9 (2009).

Bickford, L., Drezek, R.*, and Yu, TK*. Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. Online first (2009). *equal contributors and corresponding authors.

Rostro-Kohanloo, B., Bickford, L., Payne, C., Day, E., Anderson, L., Zhong, M., Zhong, Lee, S., Mayer, K., Zal, T., Adam, L., Dinney, C., Drezek, R., West, J., and Hafner, J. "Stabilization and Targeting of Surfactant-Synthesized Gold Nanorods." Nanotechnology. 20:434005 (2009).

Cui, J., Jun-Bing, F., Zhao, T., Wang, A., Drezek, R., and Zhu, MQ. "Real Time Monitoring and Scale-Up Synthesis of Concentrated Gold Nanorods." Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 5:1-6 (2009).


Hleb, E., Hu, Y., Drezek, R., Hafner, J., and Lapotko, D. “Photothermal bubbles as optical scattering probes for imagine live cells.” Nanomedicine. 3: 797-812. (2008)

Hu, Y., Fleming, R., and Drezek, R. “Optical properties of gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells.” Optics Express. 16: (2008)

Hu, Y., Nieminen, T., Heckelberg, N., and Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H. “Antireflection Coating for Improved Optical Trapping.” Journal of Applied Physics. 103: 093119 (2008)

Bickford, L., Sun, J., Fu, K., Lewinski, N., Nammalvar, V., Chang, J., Drezek, R. “Enhanced Multi-Spectral Imaging of Live Breast Cancer Cells Using Immunotargeted Gold Nanoshells and Two-Photon Excitation Microscopy.” Nanotechnology. 19: 315102 (2008)

Bickford, L., Chang, J., Fu, K., Sun, J., Hu, Y., Gobin, A., Yu, TK, and Drezek, R. “Evaluation of Immunotargeted Gold Nanoshells as Rapid Diagnostic Imaging Agents for HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells: A Time-Based Analysis.” Nanobiotechnology. 1551-1286 (print) 1551-1294 (online) (2008)

Lewinski, N., Colvin, V., and Drezek, R. “Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticles.” Small. 4: 26-49 (2008)

Fu, K., Sun, J., Bickford, L., Lin, A., Halas, N., Yu, TK, and Drezek, R. “Measurement of Immunotargeted Plasmonic Nanoparticle’s Cellular Binding: A Key Factor in Optimizing Diagnostic Efficacy.” Nanotechnology. 19: 045103 (2008)


Sun, J., Fu, K., Bickford, L., Post, E., and Drezek, R. “Lead Sulfide Near-Infrared Quantum Dot Contrast Agents for Fluorescence Tissue Imaging: Tissue Phantom Study.” Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 0: In revision (2007)

Sun, J., Zhu, MQ, Fu, K., Lewinski, N., and Drezek, R. “Lead Sulfide Near-Infrared Quantum Dot Bioconjugates for Targeted Molecular Imaging.” International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2: 235-240 (2007)

Bickford, L., Drezek, R., and Yu, K. “Intraoperative Techniques and Tumor Margin Status – Room for Improvement in Patients of Child Bearing Age.” Gynecologic Oncology. 107: S80-186S (2007)

Gobin, A., Lee, MH, Halas, N., James, W., Drezek, R., and West, J. “Near-Infrared Resonant Nanoshells for Combined Optical Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy.” Nano Letters. 7: 1929-1934 (2007)

Wang, A., Nammalvar, V., and Drezek, R. “Experimental Evaluation of Angularly Variable Fiber Geometry for Targeting Depth-Resolved Reflectance from Layered Epithelial Tissue Phantoms.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 12: 044011 (2007)

Wang, A., Nammalvar, V., and Drezek, R. “Targeting Spectral Signatures of Progressively Dysplastic Stratified Epithelia Using Angularly-Variable Fiber Geometry in Reflectance Monte Carlo Simulations.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 12: 044012 (2007)

Drezek, R., West, J., and Halas, N. “Optical Imaging for Minimally Invasive Medical Diagnosis.” National Academy of Engineering Frontiers of Engineering. 12: 65-72 (2007)

Nammalavar, V., Wang, A., and Drezek, R. “Enhanced Gold Nanoshell Scattering Contrast Using Angled Fiber Probes.” Journal of Nanophotonics. 1: 013510 (2007)

Yu, W., Chang, E., Falkner, J., Sayes, C., Al-Somali, A., Zhang, J., Drezek, R., and Colvin, V. “Forming Biocompatible and Non-aggregated Nanocrystals in Water Using Amphiphilic Polymers.” Journal of the American Chemical Society. 129: 2871-2879 (2007)

Zhu, M., Chang, E., Sun, J., and Drezek, R. “Surface Modification and Functionalization of Semiconductor Quantum Dots Through Reactive Coating of Silanes in Toluene.” Journal of Materials Chemistry. 17: 800-805 (2007)

Fu, K., Sun, J., Lin, A., Wang, H., Halas, N., and Drezek, R. “Polarized Angular Dependent Light Scattering Properties of Bare and PEGylated Gold Nanoshells.” Current Nanoscience. 3: 167-170 (2007)

Chang, E. and Drezek, R. “Novel siRNA-Based Molecular Beacons for Dual Imaging and Therapy.” Biotechnology Journal. 2: DOI 10.1002/biot2006 (2007)


Drezek, R. “Review of Dynamic Optical Breast Imaging.” Breast Diseases. 16: 352-353 (2006)

Pavlova, I., Drezek, R., Chang, S., Arifler, D., Sokolov, K., Macaulay, C., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Fluorescence and Spectroscopic Markers of Cervical Neoplasia.” Biomedical Imaging, edited by James Fujimoto. 0: ISBN: 0122696034 (2006)

Wallace, M., Sullivan, D., Rustgi, A., Drezek, R., et al. “Advanced Imaging and Technology in Gastrointestinal Neoplasia.” Gastroenterology. 130: 1333-1342 (2006)

Chang, E., Thekkek, N., Yu, W., Colvin, V., and Drezek, R. “Evaluation of Quantum Dot Cytotoxicity Based on Intracellular Uptake.” Small. 2: 1412-1417 (2006)

Sun, J., Fu, K., Wang, A., Utzinger, U., and Drezek, R. “The Influence of Fiber Optic Probe Geometry on the Applicability of Inverse Models of Tissue Reflectance Spectroscopy: Computational Models and Experimental Measurements.” Applied Optics. 45: 8152-8162 (2006)

Yu, W., Chang, E., Sayes, C., Drezek, R., and Colvin, V. “Aqueous Dispersion of Monodisperse Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanocrystals Through Phase Transfer.” Nanotechnology. 17: 4483-4487 (2006)

Wang, H., Fu, K., Drezek R., and Halas, N. “Light Scattering from Spherical Plasmonic Nanoantennas: Effects of Nanoscale Roughness.” Journal of Applied Physics B. 84: 191-196 (2006)

Yu, W., Chang, E., Drezek, R., and Colvin, V. “Stable and Bright Water-Soluble Quantum Dots.” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology. 2: 225-228 (2006)

Lin, A., Lewinski, N., Lee, MH, and Drezek, R. “Reflectance Spectroscopy of Gold Nanoshells: Computational Predictions and Experimental Measurements.” Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 8: 681-692 (2006)

Agarwal, A., Huang, S., Lin, A., Lee, MH, Barton, J., Drezek, R., and Pfefer, J. “Quantitative Evaluation of Optical Coherence Tomography Signal Enhancement with Gold Nanoshells.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 11: 041121 (2006)

Yu, W., Chang, E., Drezek, R., and Colvin, V. “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Biomedical Applications.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication. 384: 781-786 (2006)

West, J., Drezek, R., and Halas, N. “Chapter 25: Nanotechnology Provides New Tools for Biomedical Optics.” Handbook of Biomedical Engineering. (CRC Press). 18: 1-24 (2006)

Hirsch, L., Gobin, A., Lowery, A., Tam, F., Drezek, R., Halas, N., and West, J. “Metal Nanoshells.” Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 34: 15-22 (2006)


Chang, E., Yu, W., Colvin, V., and Drezek, R. “Quantifying the Influence of Surface Coatings on Quantum Dot Uptake in Cells.” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology. 1: 397-401 (2005)

Lin, A., Lewinski, N., West, J., Halas, N., and Drezek, R. “Optically Tunable Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Early Cancer Detection: Model-Based Analysis of Gold Nanoshells.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 10: 064035 (2005)

Gobin, A., O’Neal, P., Watkins, D., Halas, N., Drezek, R., and West, J. “Near Infrared Laser-Tissue Welding Using Nanoshells as an Exogenous Absorber.” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 37: 123-129 (2005)

Pfefer, J., Agrawal, A., and Drezek, R. “Oblique-Incidence Illumination and Collection for Depth-Sensitive Fluorescence Spectroscopy.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 10: 044016 (2005)

Wang, A., Bender, J., Pfefer, J., Utzinger, U., and Drezek, R. “Depth Sensitive Reflectance Measurements Using Obliquely Oriented Fiber Optics Probes.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 10: 044017 (2005)

Hirsch, L., Drezek, R., Halas, N., and West, J. “Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Metal Nanoshells.” Encyclopedia of BioMEMs and Biomedical Nanotechnology. 3: 147-158 (2005)

Chang, E., Miller, J., Sun, J., Drezek, R.,* and West, J.* “Protease-Activated Quantum Dot Probes.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication. 334: 1317-1321 (2005)

Loo, C., Lowery, A., Halas, N., West, J.,* and Drezek R.* “Immunotargeted Nanoshells for Integrated Cancer Imaging and Therapy.” Nano Letters. 5: 709-711 (2005)

Loo, C., Hirsch, L., Lee, MH, Chang, E., West, J., Halas, N., and Drezek, R. “Gold Nanoshell Bioconjugates for Molecular Imaging in Living Cells.” Optics Letters. 30: 1012-1014 (2005)

Loo, C., Lin, A., Hirsch, L., Lee, M., Barton, J., Halas, N., West, J., and Drezek, R. “Chapter 12: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Metal Nanoshells.” Nanofabrication for Biomedical Applications. 0: 327-342 (2005)

Kirpatrick, N., Zhou, C., Brewer, M., Brands, W., Drezek, R., and Utzinger, U. “Endogenous Fluorescence Spe


Drezek, R. “Review of Autofluorescence and Diffuse Reflectance Properties of Malignant and Benign Breast Tissue.” Breast Diseases. 3: 256-257 (2004)

Pfefer, J., Matchette, S., and Drezek, R. “Influence of Illumination-Collection Geometry on Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Multilayered Tissue.” Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. 42: 669-673 (2004)

Loo, C., Lin, A., Hirsch, L., Lee, MH, Barton, J., Halas, N., West, J., and Drezek, R. “Nanoshell-Enabled Photonics-Based Imaging and Therapy of Cancer.” Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment. 3: 33-40 (2004)

Chen, J., Lin, A., Loo, C., Hsu, K., West, J., Halas, N., and Drezek, R. “Optical Technologies for Noninvasive Functional and Molecular Imaging.” Advanced Therapy of Breast Disease. 0: 859-868 (2004)

Chang, S., Arifler, D., Drezek, R., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Analytical Model to Describe Fluorescence Spectra of Normal and Pre-Neoplastic Epithelial Tissue: Comparison of Monte Carlo Simulations and Clinical Measurements.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 9: 511-522 (2004)

Drezek, R., Collier, T., MacAulay, C., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Review of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Unstained Tissue.” Breast Diseases. 14: 395 (2004)


Drezek, R., West, J., and Halas, N. “Optical Technologies for Functional and Molecular Imaging of the Breast.” Breast Diseases. 14: 18-20 (2003)

Richards-Kortum, R., Drezek, R., Utzinger, U., Pavlova, I., Sokolov, K., and Follen, M. “Chapter 9: Cervical Dysplasia Diagnosis with Fluorescence Spectroscopy.” Fluorescence in Biomedicine, edited by Brian Pogue. 0: 265-314 (2003)

Richards-Kortum, R., Drezek, R., Pavlova, I., and Sokolov, K. “Chapter 8: Survey of Endogeneous Biological Fluorophores.” Fluorescence in Biomedicine, edited by Brian Pogue. 0: 265-314 (2003)

Pavlova, I., Sokolov, K., Drezek, R., Malpica, A., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Microanatomical and Biochemical Origins of Normal and Precancerous Cervical Tissue Autofluorescence Using Laser Scanning Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy.” Photochemistry and Photobiology. 77: 550-555 (2003)

Drezek, R., Collier, T., MacAulay, C., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Light Scattering from Cervical Cells Throughout Neoplastic Progression.” Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research. 5: (2003)

Drezek, R., Collier, T., MacAulay, C., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Light Scattering from Cervical Cells Throughout Neoplastic Progression: Influence of Nuclear Morphology, DNA Content, and Chromatin Texture.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 8: 7-16 (2003)

Drezek, R., Faupel, M., Pitris, C., Feld, M., Brewer, M., Richards-Kortum, R., and Follen, M. “Optical Imaging of the Cervix.” Cancer. 98: 2015-2027 (2003)


Drezek, R., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Optical Imaging for the Detection of Cervical Cancers In Vivo.” IEEE. 0: 816-819 (2002)

Boustany, N., Drezek, R., and Thakor, N. “Calcium-Induced Alterations in Mitochondrial Morphology Quantified In Situ with Optical Scattering Imaging.” Biophysical Journal. 83: 1691-1700 (2002)

Zuluaga, A., Drezek, R., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Contrast Agents for Confocal Microscopy: How Simple Chemicals Affect Confocal Images of Normal and Cancer Cells in Suspension.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 7: 398-403 (2002)


Stetten, G., and Drezek, R. “Active Fourier Contour Applied to Real-time 3D Ultrasound of the Heart.” International Journal of Image and Graphics. 1: 647-658 (2001)

Drezek, R., Zuluaga, A., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Chapter 16: Relationship Between Tissue Macroscopic Structure and Scattering Properties: Implications for OCT Imaging.” Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography. 0: 445-470 (2001)

Drezek, R., Sokolov, K., Utzinger, U., Boiko, I., Malpica, A., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Understanding the Contributions of NADH and Collagen to Cervical Tissue Fluorescence Spectra: Modeling, Measurements, and Implications.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 6: 385-396 (2001)

Drezek, R., Brookner, C., Pavlova, I., Boiko, I., Malpica, A., Lotan, R., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Autofluorescence Microscopy of Fresh Cervical Tissue Sections Reveals Alterations in Tissue Biochemistry with Dysplasia.” Photochemistry and Photobiology. 73: 636-641 (2001)


Coghlan, L., Utzinger, U., Drezek, R., Heinzelman, D., Zulaga, A., Brookner, C., Richards-Kortum, R., Gimenez-Conti, I., and Follen, M. “Optimal Fluorescence Excitation Wavelengths for Detection of Squamous Intra-epithelial Neoplasia: Results from an Animal Model.” Optics Express. 7: 436-446 (2000)

Drezek, R., Dunn, A., and Richards-Kortum, R. “A Pulsed Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) Method for Calculating Light Scattering from Biological Cells Over Broad Wavelength Ranges.” Optics Express. 6: 147-157 (2000)

Drezek, R., Collier, T., Brookner, C., Lotan, R., Malpica, A., Follen, M., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy of Cervical Tissue Before and After Application of Acetic Acid.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 182: 1135-1139 (2000)


Sokolov, K., Drezek, R., Gossage, K., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Reflectance Spectroscopy with Polarized Light: Is It Sensitive to Cellular and Nuclear Morphology.” Optics Express. 5: 302-317 (1999)

Drezek, R., Dunn, A., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Light Scattering from Cells: Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulations and Goniometric Measurements.” Applied Optics. 38: 3651-3661 (1999)


Smithpeter, C., Dunn, A., Drezek, R., Collier, T., and Richards-Kortum, R. “Near Real Time Confocal Microscopy of In Situ Amelanotic Cells: Sources of Signal, Contrast Agents, and Limits of Contrast.” Journal of Biomedical Optics. 3: 429-436 (1998)